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What Is It? Campylobacteriosis is an infection by one of several species of Campylobacter bacteria, particularly Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). This infection typically causes diarrhea. The infection also can cause fever and abdominal cramps. Humans usually become infected with Campylobacter after eating poorly prepared meat, especially undercooked chicken. Campylobacter is one of the most common bacterial causes of food-borne illness.